27 August 2016

Rosamund Lesley

Rosamund Lesley ‘Peggy’ in The Bulldog Breed film, 1960

Rosamund Lesley is a British actress who played cameo roles in 3 films and 2 TV series since 1958. Rosamund played the part of the bride in “The bride and the batchelor” at Duchess Theatre London. Her angelic face could be well remembered in The Bulldog Breed film, where she sat in a bar and suddenly enjoying Norman Wisdom who was particularly entertaining her without prior acquaintance.


  • Little Women (1958, TV)
  • Hancock’s Half Hour (1959, TV)
  • The Bulldog Breed (1960)
  • Night Train for Inverness (1960)
  • The Never Never Murder (1961)



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24 July 2016

Research on D.H Lawrence's Sons and Lovers as a Psychological Novel

This paper deals with D.H Lawrence's Sons and Lovers (1913) which is a psychological novel. By definition, a psychological novel is “a work of fiction in which the thoughts, feelings, and motivations of the characters are of equal or greater interest than is the external action of the narrative” (psychological novel, Encyclopedia Britannica). In a psychological novel, there is an influence of emotional reactions regarding the personality of the individual. The novel was written in Modernism which is considered as one of the most important periods in English literature because it is different from the preceding periods. It cannot be said that there is an exact predominant philosophy in this age due to the diverse of views and ideas. Modernism as a literary movement reached its height in Europe between 1900 and the middle 1920s.

The horrors of World War I (1914-19), became the catalyst for the Modernist movement in literature and art. Modernist writers felt betrayed by the war, believing the institutions where which they were taught to believe had led the civilized world into a bloody conflict. Thus, the history of the movement began by the effect of the World War I and also by the World War II. On one hand, World War I has inspired great novels, drama and poetry. During the war itself, it has been estimated that thousands of poems were written every day by combatants and their relatives. During the war many of the combatants published trench magazines, most of them for an audience in a particular division or unit. On the other hand, World War II had enormous impact on American writing, as did many of the other events of mid and late twentieth-century America (explosion of the Atomic bomb in 1945, the emergence of television as a cultural force, the invention and growing dominance of computers, the Civil Rights movement of the 50s and 60s, Korean and Vietnam wars, the feminist movement of the 60s and 70s).

Freud and Nietzsche have great influence on the Modernism movement. Freud's theories influenced the writers of the modern age. For instance, Freud's theory of the Oedipus complex assumed that infants love the opposite-sex parent and hate the same-sex parent. The feelings of love and hate change as the child grows, but the original feelings of hate for the same-sex parent and love for the opposite-sex parent still remain in the unconscious mind of adults. The novelists were shocked by his interpretations, in addition to the scientific and industrial revolution that made man think again about the secret of his existence. As for Nietzsche, his philosophies were representative of the concerns and uncertainly of the modernist artists. According to him, to truly realize oneself, you must break free, denounce this imposed morality and search deep inside to develop into your own person.  Thus, his philosophy pervades modern culture that many who have never read him are influenced by his thought indirectly.

The characteristics of Modernism in literature reflect the essence of this psychological age. For instance, one of the most important techniques that have an impact on the reader is the stream of consciousness. Also, there are some manifestations of new approaches in modernist fiction, such as the lack of plot cohesion with sudden climactic turning points, the chronological leaps in time and the open, unresolved endings. As for the stream of consciousness, which moves by the logic of the unconsciousness, spread over the twentieth century and particularly the modernist epoch in which the psychological novel flourished. It is a natural product of the 20th century, as it appeared before World War I. Both Dorothy Richardson in England, James Joyce in Ireland and Proust in France are considered the pioneers of the psychological novel. Virginia Woolf has developed this new technique and added a new shape and system to it. D. H. Lawrence focused on the inner thoughts and relationships among characters and this focus is considered “a deeper and more powerful current than the stream of consciousness itself” (Black, Michael D.H. Lawrence, the early fiction: a commentary 247).

Download the whole research. Link.

No Witchcraft for Sale by Doris Lessing - Summary

The story is about an incident in the life of a black servant cook and his employers, a white South African missionary couple and their boy Teddy who becomes a great friend of the cook, Gideon. The relationship between the boy and the cook is warm and based on respect until one day the boy shows racial prejudice, and then Gideon still respects the boy but keeps a distance. One day Teddy is spat in the eye by a venomous snake and there are fears that he will go blind. Gideon finds a root and uses it to treat and rescue Teddy’s eye sight with. The parents are forever grateful to Gideon for saving Teddy and give him a raise and presents for his family.

Not long after this, a scientist appears at the home, forcing the Farquars into persuading Gideon to reveal which plant he used for the treatment. Gideon got angry quietly and then shows the scientist some useless plant and the relationship between the Farquars and Gideon is now tense. The Farquars fail to understand that Gideon is a kind of a sacred man in his community, the knowledge he has about plants was passes to him from a chosen man and he will pass it to another carefully chosen person in the black African community. Gideon also fails to see the Farquars point of view. They cannot understand why he refuses to share the magical drug with others. They think he is being stubborn and selfish. After some time the family starts to carefully joke about Gideon’s behaviour in a beloved manner and Gideon is brave as he laughs politely with them. However, Lessing tries to show the reader that racial prejudice establishes barriers among people. People can easily avoid that gap if only they understand the point of view of one another.

Doris Lessing is a multi-cultural writer who appreciates the other. She shows that the Africans have culture and they are not inhuman. The narrator reflects Lessing’s point of view to indicate that some white people are racist. She wants to say that the idea of the white man’s burden is false.

The story wants to show that the kind relationship between the boy and the servant cannot last forever. Although the servant raised him up, plays with him, tells him stories and the boy is attached to him, the circumstances will differ, because when the boy understands and begins to know the facts of life, there will be barriers between them.

The situation which affected the relationship between them goes back when the boy was about six years old and used to make circles with his scooter around the black child until he was frightened and went away. When the servant blamed him and asked about the reason, the boy said, “He’s only a black boy,” and laughed. Gideon turned away from him without speaking and soon the boy brought an orange to Gideon saying, “This is for you.” He could not say sorry as the social barriers taught him that he is a master and he cannot apologize for a black person, but instead he brings oranges as an apology. It is clear that he could not lose Gideon’s affection. The idea of discrimination is obvious. However, this incident is a turning point between them.

It is very sarcastic how a scientist cares only for money. This is shown through the character of the scientist who wants to find out the secret of the plants. According to him, it is not about science, but about material benefits, whereas the black man with all his simplicity he understands the value of saving people. In fact, the idea of the black man is mocked, since it is the white man who comes to benefit from the culture of the black. The black recognizes that the white man does not care about civilization. So, he refuses to give away his culture only to bring him money.

Applying the features of the short story, it is an individual experience that has a universal significance. It is about the idea of the black and the white. The story deals with the conflict between traditional medicines (the witchcraft) which was free and the pharmaceutical industry’s profit interests. It also deals with cultural differences and social classes. There is unity of action and unity of place but there is not a unity of time as the story does not mention chronological order for the development of the boy.